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 Table of Contents  
CRISIS MANAGEMENT
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 81-84

Comprehensive evaluation method of epidemic prewarning and treatment for COVID-19 in general hospitals


1 Department of Administrative, South Branch, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
2 Department of Administrative, South Branch, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

Date of Submission30-Mar-2020
Date of Decision08-Apr-2020
Date of Acceptance15-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication21-May-2020

Correspondence Address:
Jin Li
Department of Administrative, South Branch, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 2000 Jiangyue Road, Minhang District, Shanghai
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jin.jin_12_20

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  Abstract 


In recent years, due to frequent occurrence of public health emergencies, outbreaks of major infectious diseases represented by COVID-19 have brought great harm to the lives and health of people. General hospitals are indispensable in disease prevention and control. The study analyzed a comprehensive evaluation method of epidemic prewarning and treatment for COVID-19 in general hospitals through literature review and provided a reference for constructing urban public health prewarning and treatment system.

Keywords: Coronavirus disease, evaluation index, evaluation tool, general hospital


How to cite this article:
Luan W, Zhu DP, Shi WR, Li J. Comprehensive evaluation method of epidemic prewarning and treatment for COVID-19 in general hospitals. J Integr Nurs 2020;2:81-4

How to cite this URL:
Luan W, Zhu DP, Shi WR, Li J. Comprehensive evaluation method of epidemic prewarning and treatment for COVID-19 in general hospitals. J Integr Nurs [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Dec 2];2:81-4. Available from: https://www.journalin.org/text.asp?2020/2/2/81/284661



since the 21St Century, Many Public Health Emergencies Have Seriously Threatened Social Stability and Public Health from Atypical Pneumonia/severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (Sars), Avian Influenza (H5n1), H1n1 Influenza (H1n1) to Covid-19 in 2019. the Capacities of General Hospitals in Such Incidents Directly Affect the Outcome of the Whole Event.[1] According to the Statistics,[2] China's General Hospitals Account for 62.38% of the Total Number of All Hospitals, With a Huge Number of Outpatient Visits and Inpatient Visits. After the Occurrence of Public Health Emergencies, it Is the Front and Key Link of Emergent Infectious Diseases to Prepare Early Prewarning, Transmission Control, and Monitoring. the Study Analyzed a Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Epidemic Prewarning and Treatment for Covid-19 in General Hospitals Through Review and Provided a Reference for Constructing Urban Public Health Prewarning and Treatment System.


  Epidemic Overview Top


Pneumonia caused by COVID-19 is a new infectious disease firstly reported in Wuhan in December 2019. On February 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) named the pneumonia infected by novel coronavirus, the abbreviation of “COVID-19”. Patients with COVID-19 are the main infectious source, while asymptomatic carries may be an infectious source. Its main transmission routes are through respiratory droplets and contact. People are generally easy to be infected.[3]


  Epidemic Report Top


China incorporated COVID-19 into Class-B infectious disease and managed it as Class-A infectious diseases on January 20, 2020. On January 31 of Beijing time, the WHO convened press conference in Geneva and declared that COVID-19 epidemic was “Public Health Emergency of International Concern.” As of 13:49 on February 18, 2020, there were 72,530 confirmed cases, 6242 suspected cases, and 1870 death cases; 25 countries around the world reported 804 confirmed cases.


  Comprehensive Evaluation Method Top


During the period of the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, general hospitals have actively established expert treatment teams, set up fever clinics for spot screening, launched medical teams to help Hubei Province, and participated in science popularity and education. It is worth reflecting that the occurrence of hospital infections of medical staff at the beginning of prevention and control work proved that there were certain defects in hospital management. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly conduct a comprehensive evaluation of prewarning and treatment capacities in general hospitals and promote the improvement of prevention and treatment system of major infectious diseases.

Evaluation indicators

The comprehensive evaluation indicators mainly include construction of emergency organization and system, monitoring and prewarning capacities, medical treatment capacity, emergency support capacity, emergency training and exercise, informatization management and construction, health publicity, and media communication.

Construction of emergency organization and system

The construction of emergency organization includes the establishment of leading group, emergency group, and emergency expert database. The construction of emergency system includes the construction of work system and emergency plan. The construction of work system includes 11 systems such as epidemic watch system and infectious disease reporting system.[4] The construction of the emergency plan includes the evaluation and revision, the types, and the feasibility and comprehensiveness of the plan.[1],[5]

Monitoring and prewarning capacities

Monitoring capability includes disease monitoring and detection capabilities. The disease monitoring refers to monitoring types, data reports, and feedback; the detection capability refers to laboratory testing equipment and capability.[1],[6] Prewarning ability includes prewarning method of hospitals, selection of models, and determination of prewarning indicators. In general, quantitative and qualitative analyses can be used to determine prewarning indicators, such as gray system theory and expert consultation method.[7]

Medical treatment capacity

On-site rescue, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases are the core contents for evaluating the capacities of general hospitals in medical treatment. The evaluation contents of on-site rescue include emergency rescue, transferring treatment capacity, and rescue equipment. The diagnosis and treatment include administration plan, treatment plan, quantity, and type of treatment equipment. The prevention of infectious diseases includes disinfection and purification, protective equipment, and quarantine measures.[1],[6]

Emergency support capacity

The evaluation contents of emergency resources include conformation of emergent protective equipment, and emergency labor for emergency needs; emergency resource management includes capacities in emergency material reserve, subpackage, and distribution. Of them, the complete rate of emergency material reserve and timely rate of subpackage and distribution shall be incorporated into evaluation indicators for emergency support capacity.[4],[8]

Emergency training and exercise

The evaluation contents of emergence training include training plan, training method, and training assessment.[1],[5],[6],[9] It is possible for emergency exercise to comprehensively inspect capacities in organization and coordination, response handling, decision implementation, and other aspects. The plan, type, practicality, scientificity, feasibility, and operability are the evaluation contents of emergency exercise.[1],[6],[9],[10]

Informatization management and construction

Informatization management and construction is an effective way to help to realize quick response, scientific decision, and flexible handling in public emergency management, which is conducive to high efficiently cooperatively handle emergency events of COVD-19. The evaluation indicators of informatization management and construction include establishment of informatization platform (including establishment of reporting system and emergency handling platform[1]), active promotion of decision-making, and linked informatization management.[11]

Health publicity and media communication

Media is important in information transmission, exchange, and public opinions. The evaluation indicators of health publicity include publicity of educational materials, publicity of educational routes, and coverage.[8] The evaluation indicators of media communication are whether there exist media communication organization, work team, and media spokesman in the hospital and whether the hospital has the capacities to actively respond to media and efficiently shape public opinions.[9]

Evaluation tool

Currently, many countries and governments have attached great importance to the evaluation of medical institutes' capacities in public health emergencies. The emergency management of the United States, Australia, Canada, Japan, and other countries has combined the existing national conditions and tends to be improved. Due to the different perspectives of analysis, scholars have different understanding and opinions on hospital emergency management.[10] The research innovation of evaluation system for prevention and treatment in China is low,[12] and evaluation tools are not unified, many of which are self-designed questionnaires[6],[13] by personal or institutional experience. With a focus on evaluation indicators, there is not only a lack of detailed evaluation standards and methods but also a lack of systematic and continuous “construction-application-improvement.”


  Countermeasures Top


First, hospitals need to continue to improve the emergency management system and improve their capacities of forecasting and prewarning. With shortcomings and defects exposed in the fight against COVID-19 epidemic, all general hospitals should quickly tackle shortcomings and repair loopholes. Moreover, they should strengthen risk awareness and improve the coordination mechanism for research, evaluation, decision-making, and prevention of major public health risks, as well as improve the capacities in forecasting and prewarning.

Second, hospitals need to vigorously conduct emergency training and exercise and improve emergency knowledge reserve. People are the subject of emergency management, so people's subjectivity and subject consciousness should be aroused in emergency management to improve the role of emergency human resources in emergency management practice.[14] General hospitals should make efforts to strengthen the construction of human resource teams through strengthening training, conducting exercises, and other measures; draw lessons from previous work experience and foreign experience; form an emergency management pattern with clear responsibility; and improve the emergency knowledge reserve and capacity of medical staff.

Third, hospitals need to strengthen emergency resource reserve management and improve emergency support capacity. Once public emergencies occur, sufficient emergency resources are necessary to the timely and efficient response. Therefore, enough emergency resource reserves and good management are essential bases to support material supply for public emergencies and improve response efficiency of public health events.

Fourth, it is necessary for hospitals to promote informatization management and construction to establish a perfect information flow channel and improve the overall level of emergency informatization. The use of big data, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and other digital technologies is the support of monitoring and analysis of epidemic, virus tracing, prevention, and resource allocation. Highly efficient coordination of epidemic prevention will be realized through exploration and innovation using informatization means and joint prevention and control using informatization platforms.

Last but not least, hospitals need to prepare media publicity and health education in an active manner. They shall establish a media communication mechanism and designate specially assigned person as media spokesman in charge of media publicity and health education. The designated media spokesman should actively respond to media, be skilled in guiding public opinions online, and transfer positive energy. It is proposed to carry out a series of training, enrich training forms, optimize health education, and thus improve civilian's safe awareness and emergency capacity.

After the SARS epidemic, increasing importance has been attached to prevention and treatment system for major infectious diseases in general hospitals. However, it is still required to keep pace with times in the establishment of evaluation system to form long-term mechanism. This article mainly explored comprehensive evaluation indicators of prewarning and treatment capacities for COVID-19 in general hospitals and common tools. Due to time limit, the comprehensive evaluation method needs to be further consulted and demonstrated by experts, with a supplement of weight required to make it more valuable for reference.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Ke SS, Zhu CY, Zhang G, et al. Application of Delphi methods in determining evaluation indicators concerning public health emergencies response capacity of class II and III hospitals. Chin J Soc Med 2019;36:643-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
National Bureau of Statistics. 2019 China Statistical Yearbook; c2019. Available From: http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2019/indexch.htm. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 14].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
General Office of National Health Commission of the People' Republic of China, Office of National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Diagnosis and Treatment Plan for COVID-19 (Fifth Trial Version); c2020. Available from: http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/zhengceku/2020-02/05/content_5474791.htm. [Last assessed on 2020 Feb 06].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Sun L, Tian CJ, Niu ZC, et al. Medical treating and curing ability of paroxysm of public health accident in second-class hospitals and above in Henan province. J Zhengzhou Univ (Med Sci) 2013;48:806-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Zhang H, Huang JS, Duan J. Comprehensive indicator system for evaluating hospital's capacities in public health emergency preparedness. Chin J Public Health 2007;12:1505-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Jiang YC, Zhang J. Evaluation on medical institutions in public health emergency response capability in Changning district of Shanghai. Chin Prim Health Care 2015;29:59-61.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Wang XN, Shan J, Wang CP, et al. Study on modes of the public health forewarning system of Weigfang city. Chin Hosp Manag 2005;25:35-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Song T, Dai JY, Wu FH, et al. Assessment of CDC's emergency capability with Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process. South China J Prev Med 2014;40:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Wei JJ, Fang X, He GX, et al. Optimized design of china public health emergency Response System. China Med Herald 2019;16:157-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Zhang YD, Hao YH, Wu QH, et al. Studying on evalualion of public health emergency response ability and its application at home and abroad. Chin Health Serv Manag 2009;26:220-2.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Luan W, Hang C, Jia R, et al. Application and effect evaluation of day surgery hospital-community joint follow-up model. Chin J Hosp Admin 2019;35:533-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Zeng J, Li YH. Current situation of evaluation system construction of domestic health emergency response capacity. Guangxi Med J 2019;41:888-90.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Qian J, Hu YH. Construction and evaluation of capacity in public health emergencies. J Prev Med Chin PLA 2016;34:132-4.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Wang RL. Discussion on the development and management of emergency human resources in China. J Shandong Acad Gov 2012;10:38-42.  Back to cited text no. 14
    




 

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Abstract
Epidemic Overview
Epidemic Report
Comprehensive Ev...
Countermeasures
References

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