|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 81-84
Comprehensive evaluation method of epidemic prewarning and treatment for COVID-19 in general hospitals
Wei Luan1, Dong-Ping Zhu1, Wei-Ren Shi2, Jin Li1
1 Department of Administrative, South Branch, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
2 Department of Administrative, South Branch, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
|Date of Submission||30-Mar-2020|
|Date of Decision||08-Apr-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||15-Apr-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||21-May-2020|
Department of Administrative, South Branch, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 2000 Jiangyue Road, Minhang District, Shanghai
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
In recent years, due to frequent occurrence of public health emergencies, outbreaks of major infectious diseases represented by COVID-19 have brought great harm to the lives and health of people. General hospitals are indispensable in disease prevention and control. The study analyzed a comprehensive evaluation method of epidemic prewarning and treatment for COVID-19 in general hospitals through literature review and provided a reference for constructing urban public health prewarning and treatment system.
Keywords: Coronavirus disease, evaluation index, evaluation tool, general hospital
|How to cite this article:|
Luan W, Zhu DP, Shi WR, Li J. Comprehensive evaluation method of epidemic prewarning and treatment for COVID-19 in general hospitals. J Integr Nurs 2020;2:81-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Luan W, Zhu DP, Shi WR, Li J. Comprehensive evaluation method of epidemic prewarning and treatment for COVID-19 in general hospitals. J Integr Nurs [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Dec 2];2:81-4. Available from: https://www.journalin.org/text.asp?2020/2/2/81/284661
since the 21St Century, Many Public Health Emergencies Have Seriously Threatened Social Stability and Public Health from Atypical Pneumonia/severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (Sars), Avian Influenza (H5n1), H1n1 Influenza (H1n1) to Covid-19 in 2019. the Capacities of General Hospitals in Such Incidents Directly Affect the Outcome of the Whole Event. According to the Statistics, China's General Hospitals Account for 62.38% of the Total Number of All Hospitals, With a Huge Number of Outpatient Visits and Inpatient Visits. After the Occurrence of Public Health Emergencies, it Is the Front and Key Link of Emergent Infectious Diseases to Prepare Early Prewarning, Transmission Control, and Monitoring. the Study Analyzed a Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Epidemic Prewarning and Treatment for Covid-19 in General Hospitals Through Review and Provided a Reference for Constructing Urban Public Health Prewarning and Treatment System.
| Epidemic Overview|| |
Pneumonia caused by COVID-19 is a new infectious disease firstly reported in Wuhan in December 2019. On February 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) named the pneumonia infected by novel coronavirus, the abbreviation of “COVID-19”. Patients with COVID-19 are the main infectious source, while asymptomatic carries may be an infectious source. Its main transmission routes are through respiratory droplets and contact. People are generally easy to be infected.
| Epidemic Report|| |
China incorporated COVID-19 into Class-B infectious disease and managed it as Class-A infectious diseases on January 20, 2020. On January 31 of Beijing time, the WHO convened press conference in Geneva and declared that COVID-19 epidemic was “Public Health Emergency of International Concern.” As of 13:49 on February 18, 2020, there were 72,530 confirmed cases, 6242 suspected cases, and 1870 death cases; 25 countries around the world reported 804 confirmed cases.
| Comprehensive Evaluation Method|| |
During the period of the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, general hospitals have actively established expert treatment teams, set up fever clinics for spot screening, launched medical teams to help Hubei Province, and participated in science popularity and education. It is worth reflecting that the occurrence of hospital infections of medical staff at the beginning of prevention and control work proved that there were certain defects in hospital management. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly conduct a comprehensive evaluation of prewarning and treatment capacities in general hospitals and promote the improvement of prevention and treatment system of major infectious diseases.
The comprehensive evaluation indicators mainly include construction of emergency organization and system, monitoring and prewarning capacities, medical treatment capacity, emergency support capacity, emergency training and exercise, informatization management and construction, health publicity, and media communication.
Construction of emergency organization and system
The construction of emergency organization includes the establishment of leading group, emergency group, and emergency expert database. The construction of emergency system includes the construction of work system and emergency plan. The construction of work system includes 11 systems such as epidemic watch system and infectious disease reporting system. The construction of the emergency plan includes the evaluation and revision, the types, and the feasibility and comprehensiveness of the plan.,
Monitoring and prewarning capacities
Monitoring capability includes disease monitoring and detection capabilities. The disease monitoring refers to monitoring types, data reports, and feedback; the detection capability refers to laboratory testing equipment and capability., Prewarning ability includes prewarning method of hospitals, selection of models, and determination of prewarning indicators. In general, quantitative and qualitative analyses can be used to determine prewarning indicators, such as gray system theory and expert consultation method.
Medical treatment capacity
On-site rescue, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases are the core contents for evaluating the capacities of general hospitals in medical treatment. The evaluation contents of on-site rescue include emergency rescue, transferring treatment capacity, and rescue equipment. The diagnosis and treatment include administration plan, treatment plan, quantity, and type of treatment equipment. The prevention of infectious diseases includes disinfection and purification, protective equipment, and quarantine measures.,
Emergency support capacity
The evaluation contents of emergency resources include conformation of emergent protective equipment, and emergency labor for emergency needs; emergency resource management includes capacities in emergency material reserve, subpackage, and distribution. Of them, the complete rate of emergency material reserve and timely rate of subpackage and distribution shall be incorporated into evaluation indicators for emergency support capacity.,
Emergency training and exercise
The evaluation contents of emergence training include training plan, training method, and training assessment.,,, It is possible for emergency exercise to comprehensively inspect capacities in organization and coordination, response handling, decision implementation, and other aspects. The plan, type, practicality, scientificity, feasibility, and operability are the evaluation contents of emergency exercise.,,,
Informatization management and construction
Informatization management and construction is an effective way to help to realize quick response, scientific decision, and flexible handling in public emergency management, which is conducive to high efficiently cooperatively handle emergency events of COVD-19. The evaluation indicators of informatization management and construction include establishment of informatization platform (including establishment of reporting system and emergency handling platform), active promotion of decision-making, and linked informatization management.
Health publicity and media communication
Media is important in information transmission, exchange, and public opinions. The evaluation indicators of health publicity include publicity of educational materials, publicity of educational routes, and coverage. The evaluation indicators of media communication are whether there exist media communication organization, work team, and media spokesman in the hospital and whether the hospital has the capacities to actively respond to media and efficiently shape public opinions.
Currently, many countries and governments have attached great importance to the evaluation of medical institutes' capacities in public health emergencies. The emergency management of the United States, Australia, Canada, Japan, and other countries has combined the existing national conditions and tends to be improved. Due to the different perspectives of analysis, scholars have different understanding and opinions on hospital emergency management. The research innovation of evaluation system for prevention and treatment in China is low, and evaluation tools are not unified, many of which are self-designed questionnaires, by personal or institutional experience. With a focus on evaluation indicators, there is not only a lack of detailed evaluation standards and methods but also a lack of systematic and continuous “construction-application-improvement.”
| Countermeasures|| |
First, hospitals need to continue to improve the emergency management system and improve their capacities of forecasting and prewarning. With shortcomings and defects exposed in the fight against COVID-19 epidemic, all general hospitals should quickly tackle shortcomings and repair loopholes. Moreover, they should strengthen risk awareness and improve the coordination mechanism for research, evaluation, decision-making, and prevention of major public health risks, as well as improve the capacities in forecasting and prewarning.
Second, hospitals need to vigorously conduct emergency training and exercise and improve emergency knowledge reserve. People are the subject of emergency management, so people's subjectivity and subject consciousness should be aroused in emergency management to improve the role of emergency human resources in emergency management practice. General hospitals should make efforts to strengthen the construction of human resource teams through strengthening training, conducting exercises, and other measures; draw lessons from previous work experience and foreign experience; form an emergency management pattern with clear responsibility; and improve the emergency knowledge reserve and capacity of medical staff.
Third, hospitals need to strengthen emergency resource reserve management and improve emergency support capacity. Once public emergencies occur, sufficient emergency resources are necessary to the timely and efficient response. Therefore, enough emergency resource reserves and good management are essential bases to support material supply for public emergencies and improve response efficiency of public health events.
Fourth, it is necessary for hospitals to promote informatization management and construction to establish a perfect information flow channel and improve the overall level of emergency informatization. The use of big data, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and other digital technologies is the support of monitoring and analysis of epidemic, virus tracing, prevention, and resource allocation. Highly efficient coordination of epidemic prevention will be realized through exploration and innovation using informatization means and joint prevention and control using informatization platforms.
Last but not least, hospitals need to prepare media publicity and health education in an active manner. They shall establish a media communication mechanism and designate specially assigned person as media spokesman in charge of media publicity and health education. The designated media spokesman should actively respond to media, be skilled in guiding public opinions online, and transfer positive energy. It is proposed to carry out a series of training, enrich training forms, optimize health education, and thus improve civilian's safe awareness and emergency capacity.
After the SARS epidemic, increasing importance has been attached to prevention and treatment system for major infectious diseases in general hospitals. However, it is still required to keep pace with times in the establishment of evaluation system to form long-term mechanism. This article mainly explored comprehensive evaluation indicators of prewarning and treatment capacities for COVID-19 in general hospitals and common tools. Due to time limit, the comprehensive evaluation method needs to be further consulted and demonstrated by experts, with a supplement of weight required to make it more valuable for reference.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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